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HCP-175 Political Analysis and Strategy for United States Health Policy
This course is designed to meet the following objectives: (1) to analyze the politics surrounding major health policy developments in the United States; (2) to examine and to develop possible strategies for influencing political debates and health policy outcomes; and (3) to emphasize the ways political analysis can improve policy outcomes. Major topics to be covered include: analyzing the role of interest groups, media, public opinion, legislative lobbying, elections, coalition building, policy legacies, institutions, and the politics of information as they affect the health field. Case studies focusing on the enactment of Medicare, Medicare Catastrophic, passionate issues such as gun control and abortion, and major movements toward comprehensive national health insurance, including the Clinton health plan, will also be covered. Guest lectures from political strategy leaders from both the health and political fields will provide additional insights into developing appropriate and successful political strategies.
Also offered by the School of Public Health as SPH HPM-247cd.

Government 2305. American Government and Politics: Field Seminar
Barry C. Burden and Theda Skocpol

Designed to acquaint PhD candidates in Government with a variety of approaches that have proved useful in examining important topics in the study of American government and politics.

Government 2001. Advanced Quantitative Research Methodology
Gary King

Introduces theories of inference underlying most statistical methods and how new approaches are developed. Examples include discrete choice, event counts, durations, missing data, ecological inference, time-series cross sectional analysis, compositional data, causal inference, and others.
Note: Prerequisite: Govt 1000 or the equivalent.

Government 2010. Strategies of Political Inquiry
Gary King, Robert D. Putnam, and Sidney Verba

Introduces how to do research--assessing scholarly literatures, identifying interesting questions, formulating research designs, learning methods, and writing up results. We discuss each for both quantitative and qualitative studies. Also for undergraduates preparing for sr. theses.
Note: Expected to be given in 2004–05. Primarily for graduate students; also taken by undergraduates preparing for senior thesis research.

API-212 Advanced Empirical Analysis for Public Choice
Applies probability models and statistical techniques to questions of public concern. Topics include: the analysis and prediction of individual "discrete" choices, like college attendance, employment status, high school dropout, and travel mode. Issues like the effect of the minimum wage on the employment earnings of youth are also considered. Social experimentation and the analysis of experimental data versus observations collected by more traditional surveys are considered. Empirical studies are used throughout the course to demonstrate methods of analysis. A major feature will be individual empirical papers. The course fulfills the empirical analysis requirement for PhD students. Prerequisite: API-202A or equivalent.

(KSG) API-214 Public Opinion, Polling, and Public Policy
Focuses on how to design and analyze polls as a tool for measuring public opinion and how they can be used to improve election campaigns, public policy decision making, and media coverage. Exposes students to the current range of polling in electoral politics and on public policy issues such as health care, economic policy, affirmative action, and welfare policy. Equally important, class participants will get hands-on experience analyzing and critically evaluating opinion surveys currently in use, designing polling questions, and interpreting results.
Also offered by the School of Public Health as HPM 297cd.

(KSG) API-215 Survey Research Methods and Data Analysis
This course covers a variety of issues related to survey research methods and data analysis. It is designed to be a “tools” course where students learn how to design their own research and conduct data analysis. Begins by investigating how to design telephone, mail, in-person, and Internet surveys, exploring such issues as question wording effects, question order effects, and coding. Students will learn how to write both attitudinal and behavioral questions, including questions about sensitive issues. Briefly covers sampling and implementation issues, such as sources of sampling bias and interview effects. In the second part of the course, students learn how to analyze and write about survey data. The data analysis portion does not require extensive statistical prerequisites though students will be required to find and handle data to use for assignments. Students will learn how to analyze univariate and bivariate data, as well as conduct some simple multivariate analysis. They will also use statistical software packages such as STATA and SPSS. Assignments will be based on students’ interests and will be useful for anyone interested in using surveys for their research at the Kennedy School and beyond.

Statistics 160. Survey Methods
Xiao-Li Meng

An introductory course to the methodology of sample surveys. Topics cover both design issues (e.g., multi-stage sampling) and analysis methods (e.g., regression estimation). Emphasis will be given to statistical insights and practical feasibility. The common problem of nonresponse in sample surveys will also be addressed.
Note: Expected to be given in 2003–04. Prerequisite: Statistics 111 or 139, or permission of instructor.

Psychology 2100. Research Methodology
J. Richard Hackman

Covers all major steps in conducting an empirical research project, with emphasis on studies that involve human participants. Topics include finding and formulating research problems; research design strategies; developing and validating concepts; designing and assessing empirical measures and manipulations; issues in data collection, analysis, and interpretation; and writing and publishing research reports. Enrollment: Limited to doctoral students.
Note: Offered jointly with the Business School as 4080.

Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Government 1300. The Politics of Congress
Barry C. Burden

This course is a thorough survey of what scholars know about legislative elections and legislative organization. Its focus is both descriptive and theoretic; the expectation is that legislative outcomes are the product of systematic calculation by goal-directed political actors. Topics include committee power, party leadership, rules and procedures, candidate recruitment, and redistricting among others.

Government 1360. American Public Opinion
Barry C. Burden

Analyzes what Americans think about politics, why they do so, and what consequences these beliefs have on citizen behavior and system response. Investigates methods of survey research.
Note: Expected to be given in 2004–05.

Government 1540. The American Presidency
Roger B. Porter (Kennedy School) (fall term) and William G. Howell (spring term)

Fall Term: Course analyzes the development and modern practice of presidential leadership. Examines the institutional presidency, presidential selection, decision making, and the relationship of the presidency with the executive branch, Congress, courts, interest groups, the press and the public. Considers the political resources and constraints influencing the President’s ability to provide leadership in the U.S. political system. Spring Term: Examines the strategies candidates employ when campaigning for the presidency, starting in the primaries and continuing through the general election. Also examines the historical and institutional foundations of presidential power; the president’s relationships with Congress, the bureaucracy, courts, interest groups, and the public; and the influence presidents wield in domestic and foreign policymaking. Special efforts will be made to incorporate theories of political organization and power that have emerged in the field of political science.
Note: During the fall term, this course is offered jointly with the Kennedy School of Government as PAL-115. Meets at FAS. Enrollment: Limited to 150. Enrollment limit applies to fall term only.

Government 1590. Making American Public Policy
Paul Pierson

Survey of basic approaches to the study of national policymaking in the United States. What factors influence the identification of policy problems, the setting of agendas, and executive legislative decisions? How does the distinctive structure of American political institutions affect the policymaking process? Course balances a review of theoretical approaches to public policy analysis with detailed case studies on environmental, health, and budgetary policy. Note: Expected to be given in 2004–05.

Government 2002. Topics in Quantitative Methods
Jasjeet Singh Sekhon

The class explores various topics in quantitative methods. Particular attention is given to time-series and time-series cross sectional analysis. Additional topics will also be covered in part depending on the interests of the participants. Additional topics may include generalized linear models, latent variable models, and limited-dependent and qualitative variable methods. Note: Qualified undergraduates welcome.

Government 2004. Qualitative Analysis: Analytic Frameworks for Explaining and Predicting Decisions and Actions in Domestic and Foreign Affairs
Graham T. Allison, Jr. (Kennedy School)

This seminar will examine the philosophical and conceptual assumptions embodied in alternative models for explaining and predicting decisions and actions in both foreign and domestic affairs. The principal case to be examined is the Cuban missile crisis. Enrollment: Limited to 12.
Note: Offered jointly with the Kennedy School of Government as ISP-305. Meets at the Kennedy School.

Government 2005. Game Theory I
Scott Ashworth and Andrew Harriman Kydd

Introduction to decision theory, social choice theory, and game theory. Applications to all four subfields of political science. Undergraduates welcome.

Government 2006. Game Theory II
Scott Ashworth and Andrew Harriman Kydd

Continuation of 2005.

Government 2008 (formerly Government 2141). History, Institutions, and Political Analysis]
Paul Pierson and Theda Skocpol

Drawing from all subfields of political science, this course examines theories and research designs attuned to issues of path dependence, historical sequence, timing, and temporal horizons. Considers approaches to analyzing institutional origins, development, and transformation. Note: Expected to be given in 2004–05.

Government 2009. Methods of Political Analysis
Peter A. Hall

Covers the issues and techniques central to designing and researching a good dissertation, whether quantitative or qualitative, including principles of research design, case selection, comparison, measurement, and causal relations, with many practical examples. Note: Open to all doctoral students regardless of year and advanced undergraduates.

Government 2310 (formerly Government 2113). Social Capital and Public Affairs: Research Seminar
Robert D. Putnam

Topics in the relationship between politics and civil society in the United States.
Note: Expected to be given in 2003–04. Offered jointly with the Kennedy School of Government as API-420. Meets at the Kennedy School.

Government 2144. Issues in Comparative Political Analysis
Grzegorz Ekiert and Peter A. Hall

Intended for doctoral students undertaking research in comparative politics. Explores a range of issues associated with effective research design and sound comparative analysis including issues of measurement, conceptualization, selection of cases, establishing causal relationships, and research techniques as well as some deeper dilemmas of modeling a complex, multicausal world. Note: Expected to be given in 2001-02.

Government 2160. Politics and Economics
James E. Alt and Torben Iversen

Covers the political economy of policymaking and institutional change. Readings include a mixture of foundational approaches and recent research, covering a variety of methodological perspectives. The topical emphasis is on democracy, accountability, inequality, redistribution, and growth.

Government 2175. Comparative Politics of the Welfare State
Paul Pierson

Explores the factors leading to distinctive patterns of social policy across the advanced industrial societies. Particular attention paid to the impact of contemporary pressures for austerity on national welfare states, and to an exploration of the linkages between systems of social provision and distinctive national “models” of economic development. Note: Expected to be given in 2001-02.

Government 2312. Public Opinion and Public Choice
Jasjeet Singh Sekhon

Explores the relationship between public opinion and public policy. Studies macroeconomic, health, and technology policy development. Also explores nontraditional method.
Note: Expected to be given in 2004–05. Qualified undergraduates are welcome.

Government 2326. American Political Development and Contemporary Politics
Paul Pierson and Theda Skocpol

Analyzes the US polity employing an institutionalist and developmental approach sensitive to processes and structural transformations. Examines empirical studies of changing state capacities, public policies, and patterns of civic engagement and interest intermediation.

Government 2407. Economics and Elections: The United States and Western Europe
Michael S. Lewis-Beck (University of Iowa)

Topics include economic problems on the issue agenda, macroeconomics and national elections, the theory of economic voting, economic versus noneconomic issues in the voter calculus, cross-cultural differences in economic voting, and the political business cycle.

Government 2472. Interest Group Politics
John Mark Hansen

This course takes up various claims about interest groups in American politics and considers ways to evaluate them. Topics include (1) the organizational politics of interest groups; (2) the influence of interest groups on national policymakers; and (3) the place of interest groups in the conduct of democracy.

Government 2480. Media and Politics
William G. Mayer (Northeastern University)

An introduction to current research about the role of the mass media in American national politics. Course will be given special attention to theories of media content and the impact of the media on public opinion.

Government 3004. Research Workshop in American Politics
Theda Skocpol 1387 (on leave spring term), Barry C. Burden 2524, Daniel Paul Carpenter 4509, Jennifer L. Hochschild 3785, and Sidney Verba 4072

A forum for the presentation and discussion of research in progress by graduate students (2nd year and above), faculty, and visiting scholars. Anyone working on contemporary American politics or on U.S. political development is welcome. Occasional presentations by invited speakers.

Some Potential Additions:

Government 1572. Black Americans and the Political System
Michael C. Dawson

This course will focus on how the continuing struggle for black empowerment has helped to shape both the current American political environment as well as the social and economic conditions of the black community. The unique nature of African-American politics necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach to the subject. Consequently, materials and lectures will also show how the study of race relations, psychology, economics and sociology can inform our understanding of the critical importance of black politics to American politics.

Government 2392. American Political Ideologies
Jennifer L. Hochschild

Combines American political thought and history–canonical works (Federalist Papers, Tocqueville, Lincoln) are read for their explicit philosophy as well as assumptions about power and status. Also examines the social, economic, and political context of the writings.

Government 2445. Problems in the Study of Urban Politics
Michael C. Dawson

This course is designed to allow students to place research which tackles some of the basic urban problems that confront American society within the context of theories of urban politics.

Kennedy School of Government

KSG PPP-100 Press, Politics and Public Policy
Alex Jones

The U.S. news media have become increasingly powerful, sharing even in functions once reserved for political leaders and institutions. Should journalists, who are not elected by the people, have this much power, and can they exercise it effectively? Or are news organizations hopelessly compromised by their drive for profit? What is the nature of the media's power: how fully and in what ways do the media shape public opinion, debate, and policy? Are the media politically biased? How adept are political leaders at manipulating the media, and do their efforts undermine popular sovereignty? Do new communication technologies threaten the role of the traditional media? What can be learned from news coverage of the Gulf War, the 2000 election and the current political situation? Questions such as these will be addressed in class meetings, which consist of lectures, discussion, and student presentations. Visiting journalists, politicians, or scholars can be expected to participate in some sessions.

(KSG) HLE-201 Poverty and Social Policy
Mary Jo Bane, Julie Wilson, David Ellwood

This course examines the causes and consequences of poverty and explores strategies for addressing it. We begin by exploring the various ways poverty is defined and measured and by trying to understand what it means to be poor in the United States and elsewhere in the world. The remainder of the course focuses primarily on the United States. We examine a number of explanations for poverty, including changes in family structure and population demographics, changes in the labor market, residential segregation, and culture. We also explore the consequences of poverty on health and well-being. Finally, we examine policy options and issues, including training and education, supports for the working poor, child support enforcement, health care, child care, and other supports for families and children, and welfare reform. This course may be used as the introductory course for the HLE Policy Area of Concentration.

(KSG) HLE-215 Wage Inequality and Families
David Ellwood

This advanced course examines the dramatic widening in wages and earnings in the United States over the past 20 years, with particular attention on the implications for families and children. Explores recent trends and the contrasting performance of those of different race, age, gender, and education. Considers what is known about the causes of these wage changes ranging from changing technology, trade, declines in unions, altered policy, and the like and the causes of family change. Searches for potential policy responses, exploring the logic and consequences of alternatives. Focuses on the situation in the United States, but international examples will be used as well. Designed for second-year and PhD students who have a grounding in economics and statistics, including regression analysis.

(KSG) API-227 Population Aging, Consequences for the young, and Policy Implications
David Wise

Will use empirical, economic, and other analytic concepts to understand a critical policy issue for the young — the support of future generations of older people. Considers the implications of population aging, personal saving and retirement, Social Security provisions, and health care. Special attention given to the incentive effects of public and private programs and to empirical evidence on the quantitative importance of these effects. Some new empirical concepts will be discussed, as needed. The financial implications of personal (and public) portfolio choices will also be discussed. Prerequisites: Familiarity with economic and empirical analysis at the level of first-year MPP or comparable courses will provide useful background preparation. MPP, MPA, and other students are welcome.

(KSG) PAL-211M U.S. Political Parties in Theory and Practice
David King

The Founding Fathers did not envision parties, yet political parties grew inevitably from the way U.S. institutions are structured. This module steeps students in the theories and history of party formation, focusing on the rise of political polarization and the sometimes competing roles of parties and interest groups. Several sessions focus on "how-to" aspects of running campaigns, especially in light of mobilization opportunities using the Internet. Political activists are frequent guests. The module is taught as a seminar. Many students will want to sight up for PAL-212M (Interest Groups) as a natural follow-on.

(KSG) PAL-212M Interest Group Activism and Representation
David King

The Founding Fathers did not envision parties, yet political parties grew inevitably from the way U.S. institutions are structured. This module steeps students in the theories and history of party formation, focusing on the rise of political polarization and the sometimes competing roles of parties and interest groups. Several sessions focus on "how-to" aspects of running campaigns, especially in light of mobilization opportunities using the Internet. Political activists are frequent guests. The module is taught as a seminar. Many students will want to sight up for PAL-212M (Interest Groups) as a natural follow-on.

Harvard School of Public Health

HPM208 Health Care Regulation and Planning
Dr. K. Swartz

Lectures. Two 2-hour sessions each week.
Examines issues under discussion for U.S. health care reform: health insurance, financing, methods for controlling health care costs, incentives for hospitals and physicians, quality of care, and long-term care. Competitive versus regulatory approaches are explored, as well as the role of government and the private sector. The distributional consequences of various programs and methods receive special focus. Analytical exercises, such as estimating costing-out the consequences of cost-control mechanisms or taxes to raise revenues for health care, will be required.
Course Note: HPM205, HPM206 or signature of instructor required.

HPM269 Comparative Health Systems of Industrial Societies
Dr. M. Field

Not to be given 2002-2003; offered alternate years.
Lectures. Two 1.5-hour sessions each week.
The current debate about health care in the U.S. (the only industrialized country without universal coverage) makes it imperative to examine other national health systems as "already made experiments," and for the lessons and cautions they may yield. The basic premise of this examination is that every health care system is the result of a combination of the (1) universal aspects of scientific and medical knowledge and their technological applications held to be valid everywhere, and (2) particular elements of each nation's social structure, history, traditions, value, general and political culture, as well as human and economic resources. Using a comparative approach, the course will attempt to show how the didactic aspects of such an exercise must be tempered by the particular elements mentioned above. The course will begin with a theoretical framework placing the health care system in the larger context of the social system and of an exchange process. It will then develop a typology of health care systems in the contemporary world, from the pluralistic, to the insurance/ social security, the national health service and socialized medicine. It will also examine the validity and utility of the convergence hypothesis. Student participation and presentations will be encouraged.


HPM522 Universal Health Insurance: Search for Justice, Efficiency& Quality
Dr. R. Cannon (P), Dr. N. Turnbull (S)

Lectures, seminars, case studies. One 4- hour session each week.
In 1798 the Fifth Congress established the first public insurance fund in America. Seamen were taxed to pay for hospital care. That same year, the first prepaid medical care program was established when the U.S. Marine Hospital Service was created to provide medical care for sick and disabled seamen. In 1912, social insurance, including health insurance, was endorsed in the platform of the Progressive Party, and espoused by its candidate, Theodore Roosevelt. The progressive vision of universal health insurance was born. However, within ten years, Samuel Gompers, an early patriarch of organized labor, opposed any form of government-sponsored compulsory health insurance as infringing on labor's right to bargain. The American Medical Association declared unequivocal opposition to compulsory health insurance, and several state commissions studied a standard bill for health insurance and concluded that it was neither needed nor wanted. Now, more than eighty years later the progressive's dream of universal health insurance still eludes America. This course aims to give students an understanding of what and how this happened, the social, economic and political forces that have shaped this history and what might lie ahead as the US continues to grapple with justice, efficiency and quality in its health care system.