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Moral and Political Philosophy

Philosophy 157. Philosophy of Action
Richard Moran

Problems in the philosophical understanding of human action. Topics include: the nature of intention and the intentional, explanation by reasons and by causes, the assumption of rationality and its limits (e.g., the irrationality of weakness of the will and self-deception), the role of self-knowledge in action, problems in the interpretation and description of action, and the place of the understanding of action vis-à-vis other ways of understanding the world.

Philosophy 168. Kant’s Ethical Theory
Christine M. Korsgaard

A study of Kant’s moral philosophy, based primarily on the Groundwork of Metaphysics of Morals, the Critique of Practical Reason, and The Metaphysics of Morals.
Note: This course, when taken for a letter grade, meets the Core area requirement for Moral Reasoning.

Philosophy 169. Morality and Action
Thomas M. Scanlon, Jr.

Various views of the rational and motivational basis of action and their implications for the nature of moral requirements, moral appraisal, and moral responsibility.

Philosophy 171. Contemporary Political Philosophy
Andrew Williams (University of Reading)

A study of some central problems in contemporary political philosophy, focusing in particular on issues of social justice. We will examine John Rawls’s conception of justice as fairness, and various critical responses to it provided by libertarians, leftists, feminists, multiculturalists, and perfectionists, amongst others.

Philosophy 172. The History of Modern Moral Philosophy
Christine M. Korsgaard

A study of the development of modern moral philosophy from its origins in the natural law theories of Hobbes and Pufendorf to the emergence of the two most influential theories of the modern period, utilitarianism and Kantianism, in the works of Bentham and Kant. Selections from the works of Hobbes, Clarke, Butler, Hutcheson, Hume, Smith, Price, and others.

Philosophy 174. Recent Ethical Theory
Melissa Barry

An examination of central issues in contemporary normative ethics, including the strengths and weaknesses of consequentialism, the nature and justification of deontological constraints, the difference between agent-neutral and agent-relative reasons for action, and the potential conflict between moral requirements and personal projects.

Philosophy 175. Ethical Theory
Melissa Barry

A study of several well-known forms of realism and anti-realism about moral norms, including expressivism, reductive and nonreductive naturalism, constructivism, and practical realism. Topics will include the nature of moral judgments and moral facts, internalism and externalism about reasons and motives, reductionism, and naturalism.
Prerequisite: At least one previous course in philosophy.

Philosophy 271. Political Philosophy: Seminar
Thomas M. Scanlon, Jr. and Amartya Sen (Trinity College, Cambridge)

Some recent work in political philosophy, with emphasis on issues of global justice.

Philosophy 272. Egalitarianism
Andrew Williams (University of Reading)

An in-depth study of some recent debates about egalitarian distributive principles within political philosophy and economics. We will examine the views of Anderson, Arneson, Cohen, Dworkin, Okin, Parfit, Roemer, Sen, Rawls, Temkin, and Van Parijs.

Philosophy 273. Philosophy of Law Seminar
Michael Blake

Historical and contemporary approaches to the questions of jurisprudence. Topics include: the nature of law and of legal interpretation, the role of judges, and the relationship of moral norms to legal norms.

Philosophy 274. Action
Christine M. Korsgaard

A study of some historical and contemporary accounts of the nature of action, with an emphasis on connections to issues in moral philosophy, in particular why actions are subject to moral standards.

Philosophy 279. Contemporary Theories of Justice
Michael Blake

A consideration of recent debates in political philosophy about social and political justice. How is justice related to different conceptions of human nature? How is it connected with ideas such as community, rights, and the good? We will focus on recent work dealing with justice and the claims made on behalf of social groups such as minority cultures, and the consequences of the exclusion or inclusion of these claims in our thinking about justice.

(KSG) API-606 Justice and Equality: Topics in Contemporary Political Philosophy
In this class, we will discuss some of the most important and most interesting work in recent political philosophy. Focusing on the subjects of justice and equality, most of these pieces were published in the 80s and 90s, to some extent in reaction to either Rawl's Theory of Justice or Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia. After a brief introduction to Rawls and Nozick, topics may include contemporary egalitarianism, questions of international justice, contemporary Marxism, discussions about the legitimacy of private property, and issues of "local justice" (i.e., questions of the fair and equitable distribution of scarce goods such as organs needed for transplants). The relevance of all these ideas to applied settings will be explored.

Religion 1470. Introduction to Ethics
Arthur J. Dyck (Public Health and Divinity School)

An introductory analysis of the major questions of ethics regarding the identification, justification, and attainment of what is moral for individuals and communities. Readings include classical and modern texts, both philosophical and theological, and acquaint the student with contemporary modes of moral reasoning.
Note: Expected to be given in 2003–04. Offered jointly with the Divinity School as 2700.

Government 2034. Markets, Morals, and Law
Michael J. Sandel

Are there some things that money cannot or should not buy? If so, what moral limits, if any, should the law impose on market exchanges? The seminar will examine controversial cases of co modification--such as organ sales, surrogacy, biotechnology and the patenting of life forms, pollution permits, for-profit prisons, mercenary armies, and vote-selling--and consider the philosophical questions they raise. Note: Offered jointly with, and meets at, the Law School as 96800-11. Open to GSAS students with permission of the instructor.

Government 2066 – Political Theory and the Public Sphere
Seyla Benhabib

Examines the concept of the public sphere and theories of ‘deliberative democracy.’ Readins from Kant, Rawls, Habermas, Thompson and Gutmann, Fishkin, Walzer, and Taylor.

Government 2067. Liberalism
Glyn Morgan

This course examines the arguments and strategies liberal political philosophers have adopted to handle the problem of value pluralism. Readings from J.S. Mill, J. Locke, F. Hayek, J. Habermas, J. Rawls, I. Berlin, J. Raz, and P. Mehta.
Note: Limited enrollment.

Policy Making

(KSG) API-601 The Responsibility of Public Action
This course is a philosophical examination of the responsibilities of public policymakers in a democracy. It probes central issues of political and democratic theory, and introduces students to philosophical methods and concepts. The course asks two questions: (1) What should governments do? (2) What should political actors do? The first question requires consideration of public principles that guide good, just, and legitimate public policy. The second question requires consideration of the many and often competing obligations that should guide political actors inside and outside government, particularly when there is disagreement about what is good, just, and legitimate public policy. It provides practice in the skills of analytic moral reasoning through written assignments and invites reflection about one's moral and political commitments. Discussions and assignments focus on applications of theoretical concepts from scholarly readings in philosophy and political theory to practical issues of public policy and policymaker responsibility.

(KSG) API-602 Ethics in Government
This course examines the ethical responsibilities of public officials in democratic societies. It explores such topics as the meaning of moral leadership; the appeal to personal conscience in public decision making; the management of conflicts of values; the problem of "dirty hands"; and the ethics of loyalty and dissent in administrative agencies. A special concern is the way institutional arrangements promote or inhibit moral choices. Readings are drawn mainly from contemporary sources and include case studies, both U.S. and international, which form the basis of class discussion.

1562-00 – The Moral Leader 1562 (HBS)
Professor Joseph L. Badaracco Senior Lecturer Sandra J. Sucher

The Moral Leader is an unusual course that combines elements of two electives offered in recent years. One was Management, Literature, and Ethics and the other was Moral Dilemmas of Management. Like Management, Literature, and Ethics, this course relies heavily on classic and contemporary works of fiction -- including Macbeth, The Secret Sharer, The Last Tycoon, Remains of the Day, and I Come as a Thief -- to examine in depth the practical moral issues that managers face, as individuals and as leaders of organizations. The course meets for a two-hour class, once a week, to enable students to read these books carefully and discuss them in depth. The books all portray leaders who struggle -- some successfully, some unsuccessfully -- to resolve difficult practical problems that test and shape their characters, as well as the communities and organizations for which they are responsible. The books were chosen to help students reflect on their own experiences, both personal and professional, and to help them develop their own personal philosophies for thinking about the ethical issues they are likely to confront as business leaders. Sixty percent of the grade for the course depends on class participation and forty percent on a paper, roughly fifteen pages in length.

(KSG) – STM-202M – Political Management: Governing in a Democracy
This module seeks to help public managers and public officials understand their responsibilities within a democratic system of governance. It focuses on getting, shaping and maintaining mandates to act; designing strategies in light of goals and thinking of organizational capabilities in light of that strategy; and managing processes of policy development. Through case discussions, it also deals with the relationship of government, interest groups, and the press. Emphasizes ethical and prudential requisites for maintaining positions of public trust.

(KSG) – STM-805 Law and Public Policy
Law both limits public policy and makes it possible. As a limit, law constrains the range of acceptable policy alternatives and processes. As a resource, law helps place social problems on the public agenda and serves as a tool of choice for policy implementation. This course prepares students to avoid setbacks associated with legal constraints and to maximize the optimal potential of law as a resource. Explores methods of legal analysis, investigates the legal structure of policymaking, and assesses the use of legal advocacy as a strategy for policy change. Examines how legal norms influence behavior and considers the broader relationship between the rule of law and effective governance.
Enrollment limited to 30. Not offered in 2002–03.

(KSG) – STM-806M Law and Administration
Examines the regulatory process in the United States, emphasizing the legal opportunities and obstacles administrators face in implementing programs and adopting rules and regulations. Assesses the array of laws designed to promote accountability, efficiency, dialogue and other social values in administrative governance, and explores how law affects administrative decisions and relationships. Reading materials include original legal sources, empirical scholarship and selected case studies.

(KSG) BGP-268
Focuses on methods of designing, managing, and analyzing regulation and regulatory processes. Develops students' capacities to analyze the institutional and political environment of regulation and considers techniques for evaluating regulatory policies and processes. Assesses specific policy proposals aimed at promoting accountability, efficiency, and deliberation in regulatory governance. Prepares students for public, private, and nonprofit sector involvement in setting and implementing regulatory policy.

HPM 217 Advanced Topics in Health Law and Policy
Dr. T. Brennan

Lecture. Two 1.5-hour sessions each week.
This course introduces the law of health care institutions, including hospitals, insurers, government buyers, and health maintenance organizations. We will review new payment methods fand insurance forms, antitrust litigation, challenges to not-for-profit status, the influence of ERISA on medical care, rationing mechanisms, and the role of integrated delivery systems in the future of medical care. The course emphasizes the structural aspects of medical care, drawing upon diverse materials from health economics and policy literature, as well as case law and commentary.

Health, Law, and Ethics

History of Science 244. Research in the History of Medical Ethics: Seminar
Allan M. Brandt

Course provides a framework for the historical examination of debates concerning medical ethics, and seeks to identify social, cultural, political, and economic forces that have shaped value conflicts in clinical medicine and health policy. Students are expected to write a research paper utilizing primary and archival source materials. (DF:M2)

Philosophy 276. Topics in bioethics
An examination of selected practical issues in bioethics and aspects of normative ethical theory bearing on them. Topics include aggregation and the distribution of scarce resources, discrimination and disability, death and physician-assisted suicide, abortion. Readings will be drawn from contemporary philosophical sources. Prerequisite: At least one course in Ethics.

(KSG) API-607 The Ethics of Clinical Research in Developing Nations
An examination of the ethical concepts of international justice, exploitation, and coercions through the ethical issues raised by clinical research in developing countries. The focus will be on fundamental ethical questions of justice, exploitation, and coercion that underlie controversies about the clinical research that developed nations conduct in developing nations. The course will engage students in (1) identifying the nature of the controversies surrounding multi-national clinical research, (2) elucidating the links between these controversies and fundamental ethical concepts, (3) critically analyzing the different conceptions of international justice, exploitation, and coercion, and their justifications, and (4) delineating the implications of these differing conceptions for resolving contemporary controversies involving the relationship between developed and developing countries. Students will be required to complete two papers analyzing particular cases.

HO705.0 – Justice and Genetics (HMS)
In this seminar students study the problems of how benefits and burdens should be allotted in a just society and the significance for that problem of genetic assets. Topics include egalitarian and libertarian theories of distributive justice, equal opportunity, the characterization of genetic endowment, social duties, and the ethics of genetic intervention. Recent works of moral philosophy and other discussions will be studied with attention to the rigorous analysis of argument. Students will write short papers analyzing arguments and developing their own. The goal is to discuss issues for intrinsic interest and to enable participants to join incisively in economic and moral discussions.

Genetics 220. Molecular Biology and Genetics in Modern Medicine
David E. Housman (Medical School)

The focus of this course is on the scientific, clinical, and ethical aspects of modern human genetics. Basic science lectures covering genetic approaches and molecular underpinnings of inherited diseases are integrated with patient presentations and discussion. An outside project puts each student in direct contact with clinicians, researchers, and patients dealing in a particular disorder.
Note: Offered jointly with the Medical School as HST 160

Law and Medicine (HLS)
Professor Stone

This introductory course provides an overview of problems I the evolving American Health Care System. Topics include the health care crisis and proposed legislative solutions, managed care and the changing doctor-patient relationship, malpractice reforms and the standard of care, informed consent a clash of medical and legal standards; the right to die and to physician assisted suicide; the right to health care and the legal obligation of hospitals and doctors; the AIDS epidemic as the paradigm challenge to the health care system. This course addresses these difficult issues of modern medicine in the context of the doctor-patient relationship, and examines the interface of moral, ethical, and legal problems.

Health Law Policy: Seminar (HLS)
Professor Elhauge

This seminar will take a "great books" approach to considering modern issues of health policy and reform. The focus will not be on legal doctrine but rather on fundamental questions of policy and theory. The reading will include the following Paul Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine; Richard Epstein, Mortal Peril; Henry Aaron, Serious and Unstable Condition; Norman Daniels, Just Health Care; Calabresi & Bobbit, Tragic Choices; Daniel Callahan, What Kind of Life; Joe Newhouse, Free for All?; White, Competing Solutions; Sherry Glied, Chronic Condition; Victor Fuchs, Who Shall Live?; Weiler, Hiatt, et al., A Measure of Malpractice; and some articles by Arrow, Clark, and Elhauge. There is no exam. Students must write a 20-page paper. For an additional credit, students can write a longer paper to satisfy their writing requirement for graduation.

Economics 1480. Moral Perspectives on Economic Growth
Benjamin M. Friedman

Considers economic growth and policies that either promote or impede economic growth, from a social and moral perspective. The central question is whether rising living standards promote openness of opportunity, social mobility, tolerance of diversity, commitment to democracy, and other related characteristics of free societies. Approaches include economic, historical, and literary analyses. Prerequisite: Economics 1010a (or 1011a) and 1010b (or 1011b).

ID250 Ethical Basis of the Practice of Public Health (Department of Health Policy and Management)
Dr. M. Roberts

Lectures, case studies. Two 2-hour sessions each week.
Provides students with a broad overview of some of the main philosophical and moral ideas that are used as a basis for resolving debates of public health policy. Helps students develop their own capacities to analyze, criticize, evaluate, and construct policy-oriented arguments.
Course Note: Acceptance into the MPH Program or the Department of Health Policy and Management; students must register for appropriate section.

PIH218 Health and Human Rights: Concepts and Methods for Public Health
Dr. S. Gruskin
Lecture, case study. One 3-hour session each week.

The course identifies and discusses the complex interactions between health and human rights, with particular emphasis on the implications of human rights for public health thinking and practice. The course provides the basis for literacy about modern human rights, including core principles, key documents, institutions and practices. Then, a framework for analysis of health/human rights interactions is developed and applied, including: effect of health policies and programs on human rights; health consequences of human rights violations; and the inextricable linkage between promoting and protecting health and promoting and protecting human rights. A variety of topics including reproductive health and HIV/AIDS are used to illustrate and explore practical applications of human rights in public health.

Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Government 1060. The History of Ancient and Medieval Political Philosophy
Richard Tuck

Philosophical debates about politics, from Plato to the Early Renaissance.

Government 1061. The History of Modern Political Philosophy
Nancy Lipton Rosenblum

Political philosophy from Machiavelli to Neitzsche.

Government 2010. Strategies of Political Inquiry
Gary King, Robert D. Putnam, and Sidney Verba

Introduces how to do research--assessing scholarly literatures, identifying interesting questions, formulating research designs, learning methods, and writing up results. We discuss each for both quantitative and qualitative studies. Also for undergraduates preparing for sr. theses. Note: Expected to be given in 2004–05. Primarily for graduate students; also taken by undergraduates preparing for senior thesis research.

Government 2080. Topics in Political Philosophy: The Political Philosophy of Spinoza
Harvey C. Mansfield

A study of the first philosopher of liberal democracy, with emphasis on the religious question, and with comparisons to other liberal philosophers, particularly Hobbes and Locke. Readings: Political Treatise; Theologico-Political Treatise; Ethics (selections).

History of Science 140. Disease and Society
Charles E. Rosenberg

A consideration of changing conceptions of disease during the past two centuries. We will discuss general intellectual trends as well as relevant cultural and institutional variables by focusing in good measure on case studies of particular ills, ranging from cholera to sickle cell anemia to anorexia and alcoholism. (DF:M2)

History of Science 142. Ethics and Values in Modern Medicine and Science
Allan M. Brandt

A historical survey of a series of ethical and value conflicts in medicine and science during the last century. Among the topics considered are issues in the history of the doctor-patient relationship; the growth and impact of medical technologies; genetic engineering; regulation of scientific research; the ethics of health policy. The social, political, and cultural contexts of medical and scientific developments are assessed in historical perspective.

History of Science 151. Cultural History of Medicine
Stephanie H. Kenen

This course will examine recent approaches to the history of medicine and the body. Topics will include: the literary genres of the case study (“doctors’ stories”) and the patient’s perspective (“illness narrative”); the use of visual representations in medicine (Illustrations, x-rays, MRIs, photographs); and the body as a subject of historical study and a category of analysis. Emphasis on 19th- and 20th- century US. (DF:M2)

Philosophy 178. Equality and Democracy
Thomas M. Scanlon, Jr.

Contemporary theories and debates concerning economic and social equality and the kinds of equality involved in, or required by, democratic institutions.

Sociology 130. The Politics of Illness: Conference Course
Jason A. Kaufman

Integrates contemporary sociological understanding of political processes with a historical understanding of the social development of medicine and the health-sciences. Specific topics of inquiry will include: political struggles over state responses to communicative disease (particularly AIDS); the sociology of scientific discovery; the social transformation of American medicine; the cognitive discovery that microbes cause disease and its ensuing impact on state formation; the role of disease in geo-political (i.e. military) conflict; the network-structure of disease pathology; mental illness and the politics of normalcy; reproductive health and gender politics; poverty, health, and politics; and future crises for the health-sciences infrastructure.

Sociology 160. Medicine, Health Policy and Ethics in Comparative Perspective: Conference Course
Mary-Jo Del Vecchio Good (Medical School)

Complements Sociology 162. Provides opportunities to study in greater depth topics of: culture and political economy of bio-medicine; health policies at national and international levels; and bioethics. Students will read case materials, journal articles and ethnographies as well as conduct “data searches” from the web and from more traditional sources, and choose course projects that may include field research as well as literature or document based studies.

Sociology 162. Medical Sociology
Mary-Jo Del Vecchio Good (Medical School)

Explores current topics in medical sociology, including the work of doctoring, the experience of illness, and the social distribution of health needs and health resources. Examines how medical knowledge, practice, research, and technology are culturally shaped and institutionally organized. Primarily focuses on biomedicine as a cultural system in North America; however, comparative illustrations are drawn from international medicine.

Women’s Studies 102. Gender and Inequality
Draws on material from economics and other social sciences to analyze gender relations from an economic and social perspective. Topics include: the gender gap in pay; occupational segregation and the glass ceiling; the “second shift” of household work; motherhood; conflicts between work and family; the feminization of poverty; teen pregnancy, and the feminist critique of the State.

Women’s Studies 125. Gender and Health
Mary Ruggie (Kennedy School)

Based on theoretical debates between feminism and science and different understandings of health, illness, and healing, this course explores the role of women, the medical profession, and various social institutions in constructing knowledge about gender and health. Among the issues we will discuss are health behaviors, reproductive health, STDs, mental health, cancer, and aging. Throughout we will identify differences among women and men of different class, race, and ethnic groups.

Harvard Divinity School

Div 2720 – Colloquium in Ethics
Arthur Dyck

A seminar course intended for students with a strong interest or concentration in ethics. Topic for 2002-03: Human Rights. A theological and ethical analysis of the major human rights traditions embedded in American law and public policy, with attention to their historical origins and current expressions and influence in selected areas of law and policy. Prerequisite: At least one course in theology or ethics. May apply to Arts of Ministry: Public Policy and Planning.

Div 2734 – Theological and Ethical Perspectives on Public Health Issues (HDS)
Preston Williams

A description and analysis of public health issues related to infant mortality, substance abuse, AIDS, and violence. Prevention strategies that involve health institutions, communities of faith, and community organizations will be presented and discussed. Cases will be used to encourage the development of more effective models of prevention and cooperation.

Div 2737 – Theological Perspectives in Clinical Ethics and Health Policy (HDS)
Arthur Dyck

A theological and ethical examination of perennial issues and moral conflicts in health care. This seminar is intended for those who have completed at least one course in philosophical or theological ethics.

Div 2740 – Human Rights: Seminar
Preston Williams

An examination of philosophical, theological, and political theories of human rights and their implementation by Christian churches and national governments. Emphasis will be placed upon the relation of theory to practice, the formations of action guidelines, and the ethical criteria for the evaluation of policy proposals. Case studies will be employed. Primarily constructive and comparative. Offered by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences as Religion 1471. May apply to Arts of Ministry: Public Policy and Planning.

Div 2850 – Ethics in Medical Practice (HDS)
Arthur Dyck, Judith Kinley, R.N., M.T.S., and Richard A. Norton, M.D.

Moral issues in the making of medical decisions by physicians, patients, and society, and various approaches to their resolution. Topics include managed care, allocation of care, medical futility, confidentiality, physician-assisted suicide, hospice care, surgical permissions, emergency care, medical research, problematic pregnancies, and hospital chaplaincy.

Div 2854 – The Politics and Ethics of Statecraft (HDS)
J. Bryan Hehir

This course is designed to examine the possibilities and limits of statecraft, the resources available to political leaders in a state, and the margin that exists for human choice and creativity-the challenge of statecraft. The method of the course will involve an examination of basic issues in statecraft and then the study of six political leaders. In assessing the perspective and policy of each leader, the course will examine how ethical and religious influences shaped political convictions. Offered by the Kennedy School of Government as PAL 123.

Harvard Law School

Disability Law
Assistant Professor Bagenstos

This course will provide a general introduction to legal protections of the rights of people with disabilities. The course will focus primarily on the Americans with Disabilities Act (and its direct ancestor, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973) and related constitutional issues, but we will also address topics arising under other disability rights statutes, such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988. We will consider application of these statutes to a wide range of public and private conduct: employment, public accommodations, government services (including education, institutionalization, and transportation), and insurance. Throughout, we will evaluate critically the distinct response of disability rights law to the problem of disability-based disadvantage -- a response that emphasizes antidiscrimination and reasonable accommodation mandates -- and we will consider the merits of alternative responses. The principal text for this course will be Ruth Colker and Bonnie Tucker, The Law of Disability Discrimination (3rd ed. 2000), with its annual and statutory supplements, as well as additional multilithed materials.

Family Law (HLS)
Professor Halley

Family law mediates the relationship between the state and our deepest intimacies. Not surprisingly it is the scene of several clashes. The liberal state focus on individuals and their rights collides here with its deference to the family as a self-governing group. The conviction that the wider society has duties to, and a share in indoctrinating all children clashes with our willingness to vest in parents almost complete control over offspring. A Commitment to marriage as the definite family relationship hides the many ways in which the state recognizes and imposes family relationships outside it. A wish to minimize state intervention in private relationships by using hard-and-fast rules conflicts with a desire to optimize state management of particular families by resorting to flexible ad-hoc standards. Various family policies are said to be so fundamental to the good life that they must be under local control or, conversely, a matter of federal constitutional law. Virtually every important family law discussion engages at some point in a contradiction between using the law to improve the way people live and a conviction that individuals or families, not the state, should decide what is best in this most intimate area of our lives. We will pursue these and related themes as we study family law. The course will focus on the making and breaking of legally recognized family relationships: marriage, adoption, divorce. We will pay persistent attention to the role of the state in determining the relationships between children and the adults in their lives. (The relationship between the state and children understood, as individuals is not a distinctive focus of this course). Where appropriate, we will focus on the relevance of race, ethnicity, religious affiliation, tribal sovereignty, and sexual orientation to the elaboration of U.S. family law and the thematic problems embedded in it. There will be a take-home exam. There will a clinical option for 20 students.

Family Law B (HLS)
Professor Westfall

This course explores the legal aspects of a broad spectrum of intimate relationships that shape our lives from birth onward. Family relationships are extensively regulated by statute, judicial decision, and, to an increasing but still limited degree, by private contract as well. Yet in few other areas is there a wider gap between the written law and the informal rules by which family members govern themselves. The causes and consequences of that gap are a recurring theme throughout the course. The course also explores the process and consequences of the dissolution of marriage and alternative relationships, including procedural and economic aspects, as well as other consequences for the parties and their children. Contemporary issues in the division of property and allocation of support obligations and the rationales reflected in present practices are explored, as well as the tension between private ordering and state-imposed rules governing intimate relationships. The clinical component of this course will consist of 10, 15 or 20 hours per week at the Hale and Dorr Legal Services Center in the Family Law unit and at the Harvard Legal Aid Bureau (for members). Students who wish to enroll in the class with a clinical component must do so through the Office of Clinical Programs. Please refer to the clinical course section for drop/add deadlines and rules for all clinical courses.

Family Law
This course explores the legal aspects of a broad spectrum of intimate relationships that shape our lives from birth onward. Family relationships are extensively regulated by statute, judicial decision, and, to an increasing but still limited degree, by private contract as well. Yet in few other areas is there a wider gap between the written law and the informal rules by which family members govern themselves. The causes and consequences of that gap are a recurring theme throughout the course. The course also explores the process and consequences of the dissolution of marriage and alternative for the parties and their children. Contemporary issues in the division of property and allocation of support obligations and the rationales reflected in present practices are explored, as well as the tension between private ordering and state-imposed rules governing intimate relationships.

Psychiatry and the Law
Professor Alan Stone

This course will examine the recent developments in mental health law, civil commitment, the right to refuse treatment, competency to stand trial, the insanity defense, and psychiatric malpractice. Psychiatric materials will be examined in detail in an effort to analyze the medical model of mental illness and its limitations for legal purposes. Examples of material to be studied: the major psychoses, suicide, recovered memory, the sexual deviate, and the psychiatric concepts of the sociopath. Consideration will also be given to various psychiatric treatments and their possible abuse; e.g., drugs, behavior modification, electro-shock therapy, and psychosurgery.

Harvard Medical School

GR502M.5 – Decision-making and Resource Allocation in Medicine (HMS)
Director: J. Y. Wei
Instructors: H. K. Edelberg, M. N. Sheehan, S. E. Levkoff, T. T. Perls

This course is designed as an intensive study of ethical decision making in medicine with the major goal of developing critical thinking about the ethical aspects of clinical and social problems. This course will consider medical care of the elderly as a paradigm for decisions regarding life-sustaining technology, chronic care, and distributive justice in the allocation of health and resources. Students interested in pursuing related questions in other age groups and disciplines (pediatrics, psychiatry, critical care, and oncology) will be encouraged and assisted with appropriate readings. Readings will be chosen to provide an intellectually rich background enabling students to think creatively and in an informed manner. Students will be exposed to actual ethical issues involved in the care of hospitalized patients. A central aspect of the course will be consideration of how the clinical situations influence ethical decision making. It is envisioned that students who have completed some clinical rotations will find opportunity for an in-depth exploration of challenging problems encountered on the wards.

MA701-0 – Moral Dilemmas in Medical Practice (HMS)
Director: L. M. Peterson
Instructors: G. S. Gazelle, J. P. Burns, J. Roselin

The course combines overview lectures and group discussions in tutorial format based on actual cases. Extensive student participation is expected. Approaches to medical ethics will be reviewed, with an emphasis on practical moral reasoning. Core concepts and topics to be addressed include: Patient and provider autonomy, rights, paternalism, role-related professional responsibilities, confidentiality, truth-telling, competence, informed consent, experimentation involving human subjects, ethical aspects of reproduction, ethical issues in terminal care, brain death, AIDS, and allocation of scarce resources. Patients and families will be interviewed to emphasize the human dimensions of ethical issues. The ways in which health care institutions and systems care prevent, create, or resolve ethical problems with be addressed.

HO701.0 Medicine, Human Rights, and the Physician (HMS)
Directors: C. Eisenberg, H. K. Heggenhougen, K. M. Hannibal
Instructors: E. Alpert, J. Kim, J. Leaning, K. Allden, P. Rosenblum, S. Gruskin, S. Marks, S. Sirkin

Activities/Format: Lectures Evaluation: Paper and classroom performance Enrollment: Max. 20; Min. 8
The course examines the links between health, health care and human rights. It examines the ethical obligations of physicians in the face of violations and provides a framework for the protection of human rights by physicians. It presents an overview of the epidemiology of human rights violations in the United States and the world and an analysis of the physical and psychological consequences of human rights abuses. We will discuss the pro -active role of the physician in documenting the health consequences of human rights violations, treating survivors of abuse, identifying the impact of health policies on human rights, identifying issues for women and children, mediating secondary traumatic stress and participating in human rights education and advocacy. The course aims, through lectures and class discussions, to empower students with the knowledge and skills necessary to prevent and alleviate the human suffering caused by human rights violations.

SM709.0 Contemporary Issues in Law and Medicine
Directors: T. A. Brennan
Activities/Format: Lectures on weekly topics and discussions. Two hours of outside reading weekly. A paper or in-class presentation Evaluation: Open book examination or paper option Enrollment: Max. 25. This course explores a survey of legal issues that concern modern medicine. We will discuss primarily the law that affects the doctor/patient relationship, but also include some of the legal underpinnings of hospitals and other health care institutions. Readings will include selections from law journals, court decisions, medical ethics journals, and medical/health policy periodicals. Topics will include medical malpractice, informed consent, doctor-patient confidentiality, state regulation of physicians and hospitals, limits on care, legal issues arising in research, analysis of the legal structure of various health care institutions, and recent federal efforts to improve quality of and access to medical care.

MA902.0 Narrative Ethics: Literary Texts and Moral Issues in Medicine
Directors: L. M. Peterson, M. Montello
Activities/Format: Case discussions, outside reading. Evaluation: Classroom performance, journal or at least 7 short essays. This eight-session course, especially suited for a mixed group of first, second, third and fourth-year students, uses literary narratives and poetry to study ethical issues in medicine. This methodology emphasizes the importance of context, contingency, and circumstances in recognizing, evaluating, and resolving moral problems. The seminar will focus on developing the skills of critical and reflective reading that increase effectiveness in clinical medicine. Texts will include short fiction and poetry by authors such as Woolf, Chekhov, Carver, Kafka, Hurston, Marquez and Tolstoy. The instructor will provide necessary philosophic and literary context at the beginning of each session, the balance devoted to class discussion. During the course, students will keep a reading journal that examines the meanings of illness, the moral role of the physician, and the relevance of emotions, culture, faith, values, social realities, and life histories to patient care.

SM700.0 The Social Roots of Health and Disease
Directors: J. Y. Kim, P. E. Farmer

Instructors: A. M. Brandt, A. M. Kleinman, J. N. Bayona, K. L. Fox, L. Eisenberg, M. J. Good
Activities/Format: Seminar and outside reading expected. Evaluation: Participation and class presentation with annotated bibliography or research paper. This course will explore key questions in social medicine -- a multi- disciplinary field exploring most of the socio-medical sciences. For example: How do social forces become embodied as pathologies ranging from AIDS to mental illness? Other questions are posed by ethical dilemmas native to contemporary medicine; still others ask how new trends in the organization of healthcare will affect the most vulnerable members of our society. The course will allow students to engage practitioners of social medicine in discussion of new work in the field. The course will be punctuated with seminars on the praxis of social medicine; physicians engaged in work in Peru, Haiti, and Roxbury will present findings from their research and discuss their experiences in pragmatic efforts to improve health outcomes under difficult conditions.

SM707.0 The Social History of Medicine
Directors: A. M. Brandt
Instructors: D. Jones, S. Podolsky

Activities/Format: Lectures, discussion, and outside reading expected. Evaluation: Research paper and oral participation. Enrollment: Max. 25. The purpose of this course is to use historical analyses to place aspects of contemporary medical theory and practice in a broad social and cultural context. Issues to be discussed will include: the impact of science and technology on medical thought and practice; the development of the medical profession; the growth of specialization; the sociology of medical knowledge; cultural practices and their influence on definitions of health and disease; the modern hospital; public health; the transformation of medical education; and psychiatry, deviance and the law. The emphasis will be on American experience. Source materials include primary and secondary publications which reflect a wide range of approaches and perspectives. The instructor will summarize major issues and provide necessary context at the beginning of each session, the balance of which will be devoted to class discussion.

SM709.0 Contemporary Issues in law and Medicine
Dr. T. Brennan

This course explores a survey of legal issues that concern modern medicine. We will discuss primarily the law that affects the doctor/patient relationship, but also include some of the legal underpinnings of hospitals and other health care institutions. Readings will include selections from law journals, court decisions, medical ethics journals, and medical/health policy periodicals. Topics will include medical malpractice, informed consent, doctor-patient confidentiality, state regulation of physicians and hospitals, limits on care, legal issues arising in research, analysis of legal structure of various health care institutions, and recent federal efforts to improve quality of and access to medical care.

Harvard School of Public Health

HPM213 Public Health Law
M. Mello, A. Noble
Seminars. Two 2-hour sessions each week.
This course examines the many ways in which the law impacts the public health. Among the questions explored are: What authority does the government have to regulate in the interest of public health? What are the promises and pitfalls of using laws and litigation to achieve public health goals? We will investigate these issues as they operate a range of specific contexts in public health (e.g., communicable disease control, reproductive rights, "public health litigation" including the tobacco and gun cases) and medical care (e.g., rights to health care, providers' duty to treat, informed consent, confidentiality, treatment refusal, medical malpractice litigation). The class has a U.S. focus.
Course Note: No previous background in law is needed. This class is designed for complement HPM215. HPM215 addresses legal issues relating to health policy and health care delivery, while this course focuses on public health issues.

PM215 Health Care Law and Policy
Dr. D. Studdert, Dr. A. Noble
Lectures. Two 2-hour sessions each week.
This course surveys the field of health law and policy. The goals is to familiarize students with the key legal issues in health care today, including the regulation of managed care, provider oversight, access to care, antitrust law, fraud and abuse, and the use of scientific and epidemiologic data in the courts. Two topics introduced in HPM 213 - privacy law and the role of the tort system - will be explored in greater depth. The course emphasizes health law in the United States, but involves some consideration of legal issues in other countries. Readings are drawn from health economics and policy literature, as well as cases and commentary. No previous background in law is required, although HPM 213 is recommended.

HPM292 Research Ethics
Dr. T. Brennan

Lectures. One 1-hour session each week.
This course is required for all students engaged in studies supported by the National Institutes of Health, and is open to everyone. The course reviews a series of ethical issues that arise in the conduct of research. Topics will include informed consent, disclosure of conflicts of interest, multiple authorship issues, issues in mentoring, including gender and race-based discrimination, and the federal oversight process. Course Activities: Multiple lecturers will conduct interactive sessions. Course Note: Pass/Fail only.

HSB 208c – Public Health Practice for Social Change (HSPH)
Dr. Rudd, Dr. Ryan

Lectures. One 2-hour session and one 1.5-hour session each week. The course is built around dialogues with innovative community leaders to explore a variety of approaches used in front-line public health practice. Emphasis is on the experience of activists from diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds working at the grassroots and lower income levels, and on the challenges to effective and responsible public health practice posed by basic social and economic inequalities. Course Activities: Group discussion, written and oral group projects, individual class presentations. Course Note: One previous HSB course required.

HSB215 History, Politics, and Public Health: Theories of Disease Distribution Across Time & Culture
Dr. N. Krieger

Lectures, seminars. One 3-hour session each week.
This course will focus on social and scientific contexts, content, and implications of diverse theories of disease distribution, both past and present. Theories covered range from ancient Greek, Chinese, Indian, African, Latin American and American Indian theories to miasma, contagion, germ theory, biomedical model, lifestyle, social production of disease, and ecosocial theory. The course will consider how these theories shape questions people ask about -- and explanations and interventions they offer for--patterns of health, disease, and well being in their societies. The goal is for students to develop a historical and critical perspective concerning current theories of disease distribution, and to incorporate this perspective into their public health research and projects. Course Activities: Brief reaction papers on reading each week, class participation, one group project (textbook survey), one final paper. Course Note: Enrollment limited to 25 students, with preference given to doctoral students in HSB; signature of instructor required; no auditors.

HSB250 Inequality and Health
Dr. B. Kennedy, Dr. I. Kawachi

Lectures, seminars. Two 2-hour sessions each week.
Socioeconomic inequalities in health are large, widespread and persistent. The aims of this course are: to review the major theories of social stratification - from economic, political, and sociologic perspectives; to examine the epidemiologic evidence on social class, gender, and racial disparities in health and illness; and to develop an inter-disciplinary approach to analyze the problem of inequality. Course Note: Enrollment limited to 25 students; signature of instructor required; preference given to doctoral students.

PIH214 Health, Human Rights, and the International System
Dr. S. Marks

Lectures, seminars. One 3-hour session each week.
This course is designed to provide an overview of the nature and role of the international system with respect to health and human rights issues. Focus will be on the responses of the UN, including WHO, regional organizations, and non-state actors to some of the pressing issues of health and human rights. Among the specific issues to be examined are: trade; intellectual property and drug pricing in Africa; refugee status of girls threatened with FGC (female genital cutting); forced sterilization and human rights procedures in Latin America; legality of nuclear weapons before the World Court; health of child workers under the European Social Charter; international ban on reproductive human cloning. We will use simulations of actual cases. The ultimate aim of the course is to prepare students to interact professionally with the international system to advance the health and human rights objectives, whether through governmental, intergovernmental or nongovernmental processes.

PIH219 Development and Human Rights (Cross-listed at KSG at PED 141M)
Dr. S. Marks

Lectures, seminars.
This course considers the impact of economic development on health and human rights, and the problems achieving human rights in developing societies. We will examine broad-ranging political-economic and social issues that bear on the local application of internationally recognized human rights. Beginning with an exploration of the underlying concepts and strategies of both economic development and human rights, the course surveys international economic relations (trade, investment, technical assistance) as they affect health and human rights. It also explores the social, economic, cultural, legal and political processes by which development and human rights are affected in various societies. Topics to be covered include the human right to development, conditionality of foreign aid, corruption, housing, gender issues, and ethnic conflict. Course Note: Enrollment limited to 40 students.

PIH245 Population and Development Policies: A World of Contention
Dr. G. Zeidenstein

Seminars. One 2-hour session each week.
This seminar-course covers the development and implementation of population policies within the broader context of international development activities. It focuses on several broad sub-topics: the UN trail; theories and evidence; ethical considerations; environment; security; gender and sexuality; reproductive health and family planning programs; the shifting USA positions; resources; implementation; looking ahead. Course Activities: Guest speakers will include practitioners, policymakers and researchers from the field. Students will be expected to master weekly reading materials, participate in class discussions, make a class presentation of work in progress, and submit a term paper on a topic agreed upon with the instructor. This seminar-course does not include quantitative applications. Course Note: Enrollment limited to 15 students, with preference given to students from SPH and KSG. Admission will be based on written statements of purpose (no longer than two double-spaced pages) submitted to the instructor at the first session. Signature of instructor required.

PIH265 Ethical Issues in International Health Research
Dr. R. Cash

Seminar. One 3-hour session each week.
This course is designed to expose students to the key ethical issues that may be encountered in the course of conducting international health research. Using case presentations and discussion-based class sessions, students will have the opportunity to begin developing their own tools for dealing with these important issues in an applied context.

Kennedy School of Government

(KSG) - STM-808 The Morality of Process
In the public realm, it matters not only what ends we pursue, but what legal forms we employ to pursue them. Since each legal form embodies distinct moral principles — for example, impartiality, equality, reciprocity, harmony, or fairness — each gives priority to certain relationships among citizens over others. Each form makes of public life something that, morally, it would not otherwise have been. This course examines the variety of legal processes public managers employ — including contract, adjudication, mediation, legislation, voting, administrative regulation, and choosing by lot — and explores the values at stake in selecting one process rather than another to make social decisions and address collective problems. Case studies, both U.S. and international, provide the basis of class discussion.